What is Incident?

An incident is an occurrence where a service or component fails to provide a feature or service that it was designated to deliver.
What is Incident Management?
Incident Management may bea term describing the activities of an company to spot, analyze and correct hazards to forestall a future re-occurrence.
What is the goal of Incident Management?

  • Identify and restore service operations as fast as possible
  • Classify the incident and record them
  • Maintaining the best levels of service quality and availability

Incident Management State Model Flow

New – Initial State of any incident after summiting.In Progress- Set automatically upon assignment to Service Agent.On Hold – Work paused during awaiting information from the customer or an external vendor or resolution from related problem or change.Resolved – Service is working fine, awaiting customer confirmation or automatic closure.Closed – Final State of the incident.Canceled – Incident raised in error or duplicate of another incident.

Incident Management Process

  • Incident Identification
  • Incident logging
  • Incident categorization
  • Incident prioritization
  • Incident routing and assignment
  • Investigation and Diagnosis
  • Incident resolution
  • Incident resolution

Incident Identification

The first step in an incident is incident identification. The service desk agent decides if the issue is an incident or a request.

Incident Logging

An incident can be logged through e-mail, phone call or through ServiceNow application. In ServiceNow, Incident are often created through Service Portal.
Service Portal:End users will create and submit their own incidents through Service Portal. To create an incident, navigate to the service portal homepage, and then click Get Help. This will take you to the Service Catalog > Can we Help You? screen. An then Click Create Incident. or You can use Chat option to speak with the service desk agent he will help you to resolve or raise a incident on your behalf.

Incident Categorization

Incident can be categorized and sub categorized based on the area of IT or business that the incident causes a disruption.
Categorization provides the following benefits:

  • Improves the clarity of the report data
  • Assists in future when you investigate similar incidents in the search for a resolution.

The value you select in the Category field determines the values you can select in the Sub-Category field.

Incident Prioritization

Incident prioritization is the time frames associated with the handling of the incident and the targeted time to resolution.
Impact  is a measure of the effect of the incident, problem or change on business processes and of the potential damage caused by the incident before it can be resolved. This can be based on several factors including the number of affected users, potential financial losses and criticality of affected services.
Urgency is a measure of the business criticality of an incident, when there is an effect upon business deadlines. The urgency reflects the available time to restore service before the impact is felt by the business.

Incident Routing and Assignment

Once the incident is categorized and prioritized, incidents are automatically or manually assigned to an Assignment Group, which is responsible for assigning an individual agent. Once Assignment Group is filled, all the group mangers receive an email notification. Then Assigned to can be filled by the group manager or any member of the assigned group. Then Assigned to values are limited to members of the selected group.
Assignment Group:

  • Incidents are manually routed to an Assignment group by the incident creator or owner.
  • Incidents created via portal or e-mail are likely to be routed to the service desk.

Assigned To:

  • Select an assigned to user from the group members.
  • List of users is limited to the members of the selected group.

Investigation and Diagnosis

Once incident get assigned, the assigned user will start investigate to find the issue. Based on the complexity of the incident, Reassign or escalate if any additional support from various department if required then Create, assign and complete incident tasks.
While the incident is being processed, the agent needs to ensure the SLA isn’t breached. An SLA is that the acceptable time within which an incident needs some response(response SLA) or resolution (Resolution SLA).
Response SLA:

  • Starts when incident is created
  • Completed when incident is assigned.

Resolution SLA:

  • Starts when incident is created.
  • Paused if incident is set on hold or resolved
  • Completed when incident is closed or canceled

Once the incident is diagnosed, service desk will apply a solution.

Incident Resolution

An incident is considered to be resolved when the service desk agent has come with a temporary workaround or a permanent solution for the issue. Once service is restored, ensure that you document the incident. Communicate resolution to the affected user. It also consists of activities like creating related problem or change records.

Incident Closure

An incident can be closed once the issue is resolved and the user acknowledges the resolution and is satisfied with it. Incidents will close automatically after 7 days; some users may give permission to manually close the incident.

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